Encyclopedia > Town Český Krumlov > History of the town of Český Krumlov > Aristocratic Families in Český Krumlov

Schwarzenbergs

The Schwarzenbergs belonged among the most significant noble families in the Czech lands. In 1660, they gained the first Czech dominion - Toeboo. Originally, however, it was a German family of the Lords of Seinsheim which came from Lower Franconia. The founder of the family is considered to be Erkinger (+1437) who bought the Schwarzenberg dominion at the beginning of the 15th century. Later on, this dominion gave its name to this noble family. The original heraldic emblem of the family was just silver and blue stripes. Another significant personage of the family was the count Adolf who conquered Raab, a Turkish fortress. In memory of this battle, he included the head of a Turk with a raven pecking out its eye into his coat-of-arms.

Schwarzenberg portrait gallery at the Český Krumlov Castle

The founder of the large Schwarzenberg dominion in Bohemia was Jan Adolf I who gained the Toeboo dominion in 1660 and the Hluboká dominion in 1661. In 1670, he was raised to the princes' estate for services rendered to the emperor. His son Ferdinand extraordinarily enlarged the family dominion by marriage with Anna Marie von Schultz. Ferdinand's sister was Marie Ernestine von Eggenberg, who was married to Johann Christian I. von Eggenberg.

..As they didn't leave any descendants, the whole ample Eggenberg possession was passed over her nephew Adam Franz zu Schwarzenberg after the death of Marie Ernestine in 1719. It was him who made Český Krumlov the family residence. His son Joseph Adam zu Schwarzenberg gained recognition for the Baroque reconstruction of Český Krumlov castle where art flourished at the court. We also owe thanks to him for the establishment of the new Baroque castle theatre.

Joseph's son, Johann Nepomuk zu Schwarzenberg, gained recognition for the economic development of the whole dominion, especially its Bohemian forest areas for the construction of the Schwarzenberg navigational canal which began at that time. His sons were Joseph and Karl and, according to a testament from 1703, the family of Schwarzwnberg split in the year 1802 into two branches - the Krumlov-Hluboká branch and the Orlík branch. The founder of the Krumlov-Hluboká branch (primogeniture) was Joseph zu Schwarzenberg who took Pauline zu Schwarzenberg, neé von Ahrenberg, in marriage for a wife. The founder of the Orlík branch was Karl I Philipp zu Schwarzenberg who built his career as a diplomat and general. According to his strategic plan, the battle of Leipzig against Napoleon in 1813 was led.

Schwarzenberg family tree Another descendant of the Krumlov-Hluboká branch, Johann Adolf II. zu Schwarzenberg, rebuilt with a great contribution from his wife, Eleonora zu Schwarzenberg, neé von Lichtenstein, the Hluboká castle in romantic style, where they then transferred their residence. Adolf's brother, Felix zu Schwarzenberg, was in the diplomatic services as a minister and in 1848 was appointed as the prime minister of the Austrian government. His other brother, Friedrich zu Schwarzenberg, became the archbishop of Prague in 1850. The Krumlov-Hluboká branch died out in 1950 together with Adolf, LL.B. During his lifetime, this branch became state property in 1947.

..

(mj)